Key References on Coccinellids

  • Banks, C.J. 1955. An ecological study of Coccinellidae (Col.) associated with Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba. Bull. Entomol. Res. 46:561-587.
  • Banks, C.J. 1956. The distribution of coccinellid egg batches and larvae in relation to numbers of Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba. Bull. Entomol. Res. 47:47-56.
  • Carter, M.C. and A.F.G. Dixon. 1982. Habitat quality and the foraging behavior of coccinellid larvae. J. Anim. Ecol. 51:865-878.
  • Conrad, M. 1959. The spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), as a predator of European Maize Borer eggs. J. Econ. Entomol. 52:843-847.
  • Cottrell, T.E. and K.V. Yeargan. 1998. Effect of pollen on Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) population density, predation, and cannibalism in sweet corn. Environ. Entomol. 27:1402-1403.
  • Forbes, S.A. 1883. The food relations of the Carabidae and Coccinellidae. Bull. Ill. St. Lab. Nat. Hist. 1:33-64.
  • Gordon, R.D. 1985. The Coleoptera (Coccinellidae) of America north of Mexico. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 93:1-912.
  • Gordon, R.D. and N.Vandenberg. 1991. Field guide to recently introduced species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in North America, with a revised key to North American genera of Coccinellini. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 93(4), pp.845-864.
  • Hemptinne, J.L. and A. Desprets. 1986. Pollen as a spring food for Adalia bipunctata. Pages 29-35 in I. Hodek, editor. Ecology of Aphidophaga. Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
  • Hodek, I. 1973. Biology of Coccinellidae. Junk, The Hague, Academic, Netherlands. Pp. 107-136.
  • Hodek, I. and A. Honék. 1996. The Ecology of Coccinellidae. Kluwer AcademicPublishers. Boston, Massachusetts. Pp. 185-189, 225-226.
  • Harmon, J.P., J.E. Losey and A.R. Ives. 1998. The role of vision and color in the close proximity foraging behavior of four coccinellid species. Oecologia 115:287-292.
  • Iwao, S. 1968. A new regression method for analyzing the aggregation pattern of animal populations. Res. Pop. Ecol. 10:1-20.
  • Kawai, A. 1976. Analysis of the aggregation behavior in the larvae of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to prey colony. Res. Pop. Ecol. 18:123-134.
  • Lloyd, M. 1967. Mean crowding. J. Anim. Ecol. 36:1-30.
  • Lucas, E., D. Coderre, and J. Brodeur. 1998. Intraguild predation among aphid predators: characterization and influence of extraguild prey density. Ecology. 79:1084-1092.
  • Mills, N.J. 1982. Voracity, cannibalism and coccinellid predation. J. Appl. Biol. 101:144-148.
  • Nakamuta, K. 1985. Mechanisms of the switchover from extensive to area-concentrated search behaviour of the ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata bruckii. J. Ins. Physiol. 31:849-856.
  • Osawa, N. 1989. Sibling and non-sibling cannibalism by larvae of a lady beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in the field. Res. Pop. Ecol. 31:153-160.
  • Osawa, N. 1992. Effect of pupation site on pupal cannibalism and parasitism in the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Jpn. J. Entomol. 60:131-135.
  • Osawa, N. 1993. Population field studies of the aphidophagous ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): life tables and key factor analysis. Res. Popul. Ecol. 35: 335-348.
  • Phoofolo, M.W., and J.J. Obrycki. 1998. Potential for intraguild predation and competition among predatory Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae. Entomol. Experiment. Appl. 89:47-55.
  • Phuoc, D.T. and W.C. Stehr. 1974. Morphology and taxonomy of the known pupae of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of North America, with a discussion of phylogenetic relationships. Contrib. Amer. Ent. Inst. Vol. 10, No. 6.
  • Pienkowski, R.L. 1965. The incidence and effect of egg cannibalism in first-instar Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58:150-153.
  • Polis, G.A. 1981. The evolution and dynamics of intraspecific predation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. System. 12:225-251.
  • Polis, G. A., C.A. Myers, and R.D. Holt. 1989. The ecology and evolution of intraguild predation: potential competitors that eat each other. Annu. Rev. Ecol. System. 20:297-330.
  • Rees, B. E., D.M. Anderson, D. Bouk, and R.D. Gordon. 1994. Larval key to genera and selected species of North American Coccinellidae (Coleoptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 96:387-412.
  • Schellhorn, N.A. 1998. Cannibalism and interspecific predation: The interaction among coccinellid beetles, their aphid prey and maize. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. pp. 139.
  • Schellhorn, N.A., and D.A. Andow. 1999. Cannibalism and interspecific predation: role of oviposition behavior. Ecol. Appl. 9:418-428.
  • Schellhorn, N.A. and D.A. Andow. 1999. Mortality of coccinellid (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae and pupae when prey becomes scarce. Envir. Entomol. 28(6):1092-1100.
  • Takahasi, K. 1989. Intra- and inter-specific predation by lady beetles in spring alfalfa fields. Jpn. J. Entomol. 57:199-203.
  • Winder, L. 1990. Predation of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae by polyphagous predators on the ground. Ecol. Entomol. 15:105-110.
  • Wright, E.J. and J.E. Laing. 1980. Numerical response of coccinellids to aphids in corn in southern Ontario. Can. Entomol. 112:977-988.
  • Wright, E.J. and J.E. Laing. 1982. Stage-specific mortality of Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake on corn in southern Ontario. Environ. Entomol. 11:32-37.

Ladybird Beetle Identification Key